CP. MI Ricardo Morales Corral 

 En días pasados fue presentado por el INEGI, el Índice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor (INPC) correspondiente a la primera quincena de noviembre de 2021, el cual muestra un incremento general de la inflación en 7.05% a tasa anual, su nivel más alto en los últimos 20 años

 ¿Qué es la inflación? 

 La inflación es el aumento sostenido y generalizado de los precios de los bienes y servicios de una economía a lo largo del tiempo. 

 Para medir la inflación y ante la imposibilidad de dar seguimiento a todos los precios de la economía, se selecciona una muestra de los bienes y servicios más consumidos en los hogares. 

 En México, desde 2011, es el INEGI la institución encargada de medir la inflación en base al Índice Nacional de Precios al Consumidor (INPC), considerando 2 principales componentes: 

  • Índice no subyacente: agrupa los genéricos que presentan mayor volatilidad en sus precios como los productos agropecuarios y los energéticos. 
  • Índice subyacente: agrupa el resto de bienes y servicios cuya tasa de variación refleja de mejor manera la tendencia de la inflación en el país. 

 Cifras 2021. 

La expectativa de inflación para el 2021, de acuerdo al Banco de México, era del 3% anual, sin embargo, durante la mayoría de los meses del año, no se cumplió con dicha expectativa, por lo que, de acuerdo al INEGI, durante 17 quincenas de forma consecutiva, la inflación se ha ubicado por encima de 4%, mostrando a la primera quincena de noviembre de 2021, una tasa de inflación de 7.05% anual. 

 Por otro lado, en lo que respecta a la variación anual de los índices subyacente y no subyacente, a la primera quincena del mes de noviembre de 2021, fue de 5.53% y 11.68%, respectivamente, en comparación al mismo periodo de 2020, donde las cifras correspondientes fueron de -0.11% y de 0.51% respectivamente, de acuerdo a lo siguiente: 

Productos con mayor incidencia. 

Dentro de los productos genéricos con mayor incidencia sobre la inflación general, relacionados con la canasta básica, correspondiente a la primera quincena del mes de noviembre de 2021, destacan los siguientes: 

Postura oficial. 

En relación a la escalada de precios, el presidente Andrés Manuel López Obrador, señalo que se trata de un “fenómeno mundial”, además se refirió a la necesidad de aprobar la reforma eléctrica, señalando que: “Nosotros vamos logrando estabilizar los precios. Por eso es que necesitamos la reforma eléctrica para que no aumenten los precios”. 

Por otra parte, el presidente de la Comisión Nacional de Salarios Mínimos (CONASAMI), Luis Munguía, señaló que: “el problema que vivimos de inflación no está relacionado con factores internos. Aunque algunas personas crean que el salario mínimo podría influir están equivocados…” 

Finalmente. 

Aunque la economía de todo país es cíclica y los efectos económicos post-pandemia han impactado en general de forma negativa, es verdaderamente preocupante que en México se presenten los índices inflacionarios más altos de los últimos 20 años, ello aunado a la disminución de inversión extranjera directa en el país, la devaluación del peso frente al dólar, entre otros, sin duda, la economía en México no va por buen camino, por lo que la reactivación económica del país será más prolongada de lo previsto. 

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